trafficI hope I’m not going to say anything too controversial here, but the reality that most people don’t see big improvements on logical reasoning. It’s not your fault, really. You are just incompetent.

Before you click away because whoa, I just said something really mean, hear me out for a second. Almost everyone starts out their path to logical reasoning mastery totally incompetent, so chances are you are totally incompetent too. The problem is that you don’t even realize it! You may even think you are pretty good, and actually you’re not wrong. So how can you be pretty good and totally incompetent at the same time?

It happens because is that your natural logic skills are already highly developed. You’ve been reading and thinking for your whole life, right? Though your natural skills can help you get by pretty well — even allow you do okay on your cold diagnostic exam — they will be really, really tough to improve beyond the baseline you’re at now. So if you want to get better at logical reasoning, what do you do?

The thing to do is forget about your natural skills entirely. To improve at logical reasoning, you need to tear down your old logical reasoning skills and build new, better skills in their place. Most people don’t really make the effort to do this, so they remain totally incompetent. Here, we help get you in the right frame of mind to actually learn how to do logical reasoning problems better. Read this, and you’ll understand why most people who do improve actually get worse before they get better. 

I hear LSAT students say all the time that they are freaked out because their LR scores are getting lower than their diagnostic. That’s totally okay! Here’s a big picture view of what learning logical reasoning actually looks like step by step, so you’ll know where you are at and can stop freaking out!

Stage 1: Unconscious Incompetence

The idea for this post came when I happened across something called the “competence learning model.” Stage 1, “unconscious incompetence,” reminded me of every student I’ve ever seen starting out on their LSAT prep. Here’s what Wikipedia has to say about it:

1. Unconscious incompetence

The individual does not understand or know how to do something and does not necessarily recognize the deficit. They may deny the usefulness of the skill. The individual must recognize their own incompetence, and the value of the new skill, before moving on to the next stage. The length of time an individual spends in this stage depends on the strength of the stimulus to learn. (source)

Whether, you want to admit it or not, this probably describes your relationship to logical reasoning at the outset of your LSAT prep. By adulthood, most of us are going through life more or less on auto-pilot, not really learning new mental skills. It’s nothing  ashamed about — that’s just how humans work. But, to do well on the LSAT you have to slap yourself around a bit, get out of the mental haze, and start actually learning new skills.

With logic games, it’s easy to recognize the deficit. At first, one often can’t do anything right there! With logical reasoning, however, it’s way harder to see your deficits because, like I said, your natural language skills will do a good job helping you limp through. We don’t want to just be limping though.

Let’s try to reveal one way in which you need to get better. Download one of the few actually useful phone apps I’ve seen for LSAT prep, Manhattan LSAT’s LSAT Arcade. Now play the “If…Then” Game.

Did you get an “A”? I’m guessing no. I didn’t on my first try either. This game tests your ability at a specific skill, converting “if-then” statements into diagrams in your head, and making basic inferences from them (doing the contrapositive).

This is one of the many skills that you need to be able to do blindfolded and handcuffed in order to master the LSAT, but it’s possible, probable even, that you haven’t spent enough time on it to even improve the skill. See what I mean about competence? It doesn’t just come out of nowhere. You have to be aware that you don’t yet have the skill mastered, and start mastering it now.


Zemanta Related Posts ThumbnailNot all LSAT LR prep books are created equal. If you’ve been hitting any major snags, it can often be the fault of inferior instruction. Click HERE to check out our list of recommended LR study aids. These books are battle-tested and we guarantee that they will get you on your way to LR mastery. This includes the LSAT Logical Reasoning Bible, the book Josh and I each used to achieve perfect logical reasoning scores. The most effective way to use it is in tandem with the Powerscore Logical Reasoning Workbook, which drills you on different question types using real LSAT questions.

View The Powerscore Logical Reasoning Bible and Workbook in an Amazon shopping cart

This is my big issue with some LSAT books, that they don’t really say what skills are absolutely critical to build at first, and they don’t really help you with the process. Let me try to fill you in on some key basic skills.

Conditional Reasoning

Having your if-then statements down, being able to do contrapositives, and make simple inferences are all skills that are fundamental to most of what you’ll be doing on the LSAT. Start out by merely become aware of the rules and how they work, but remember that you are basically trying to become a conditional reasoning supercomputer. By test day, all these skills have to be automatic. We have a good conditional logic refresher here to get you started.

Key LSAT Words

No, the LSAT LR section is not a vocab exam, but you do have to know the precise dictionary definition of certain key words like “some” and “all”. Here is a good video on this from Mike Kim, the author of The LSAT Trainer™:

Causal Reasoning

The LSAT handles cause and effect in a way that is very different from a natural, everyday understanding of it. Don’t worry, it’s actually easier to work with than real life usage. Explaining this is a job for another post, but I particularly like the explanation of causal reasoning in the Logical Reasoning Bible, so make sure you give that section of the book a 2nd, 3rd, and maybe even a 4th read. It will help you out.

Stage 2: Conscious Incompetence

Once you know the basic skills, it’s time to head in the awkward adolescent phase of your LSAT prep. At least here, you know that you suck! This is the time to make sure you are doing every right. Not fast, but accurate. All the time I see people doing timed sections at the beginning of their prep and I’m like “holy hell! what are you doing!” We need to slow down and get the processes right before you pick up speed. Do enough untimed problems and speed will build naturally, but you don’t have to push it. Do the opposite. Slow it down. Think about why each and every answer choice is right or wrong.

If you do (against my advice) take a timed section early on, say three weeks in to your prep, and score worse than your diagnostic, congratulations! You are probably doing something right. You are have gotten worse because you are now doing the right things more slowly. Again, don’t worry, speed will come later.

Now is all about accuracy and starting to build pattern recognition. Pattern recognition is really the key, and for this, it’s all about learning the question types cold. Question types are just so, so important on logical reasoning that I really can’t stress it enough. When you look at the logical reasoning section as a whole, it just looks like a huge mish mash of infinitely varied questions. However, when you start looking at the question types, patterns emerge. The same kind of trap answers appear over and over, and the correct answers test the same types of inferences over and over.

Targeting your practice by question type will help you see these patterns, so sort out questions by type before you practice. It will help speed you along to stage 3.

STAGE 3: Conscious Competence

At this point, you’re doing everything right, but it’s still slower than ideal. This is when you add the timing component full on, meaning that you are doing timed sections. Check out our study schedule if you want an idea when this might happen. However, everyone is different. If you can’t make significant improvements in 3 months, then schedule the test for later and keep trying. Trust me, eventually you will be scoring much better than your diagnostic (unless you scored a 180 on your diagnostic, in which case good for you, all other LSAT takers hate you now).

The point is, you are now consciously aware of how to do the problems right. That’s a huge step. You’ve rebuilt the proper skills and you are ready to start running.

STAGE 4: Unconscious Competence

LSAT prep experts don’t like to admit to this but when you are really good at the LSAT, great things just sort of happen. Most of the time I’m no longer really thinking about why an answer is correct. I just know it is. As you practice more and more you’ll find that the skills you have learned sort of recede back into your unconscious. When you hit a really hard problem, you can call these skills back out to help you be sure about an answer, but mostly you will be running on auto-pilot.

It takes a lot of practice to get to this point, which is why Josh and I and as always harping on you non-stop about practicing. Really, until you hit stage 4, your score might not improve at all. This is why it’s important not to give up and to keep at it, because you often won’t see the real benefits of your work until the final month of your prep!

Again, if it doesn’t happen in time for this LSAT, don’t worry. Postpone and try to figure out where your progression is got derailed. Chances are you need to build some skills better from the ground up. Keep at it and I know you can get better. You will improve.

If you’re feeling stuck, just let us know in the comments and we’ll try to get you sorted out. We are here to help.

If you haven’t done so already, you really should pick up a copy of the Logical Reasoning Bible. Josh and I both credit the techniques learned in that book for our perfect scores on the Logical Reasoning section. We are 100% confident that this is the single most valuable resource on the market to help you master logical reasoning, so don’t try to attack the section without it.

About Author

University of Chicago, J.D., 2012 Ready to Kickstart your LSAT Prep? Join the LSAT Mastermind Study Group


  1. Hi all,
    This post is extremely useful.
    Do you have any recommendations on how to increase speed in LR & RC? I read an RC passage in 5.5-6 minutes and LR I take on average 2 minutes per questions.


    • Hi Lionel, I’m writing up a longer post about increasing speed, so I’ll make sure to link to it here when it’s finished!

  2. I got derailed in the LR study section and this article nailed why – thanks. My one request is that the article get a re-edit for grammar as there were a lot of odd mistakes that aren’t present in your other posts.

  3. Hi, Im doing mini timed logical reasoning and, on average, get 21 right per section. The ones that I get wrong are wrong for reasons that I typically know already but overlook when practicing. Is this normal and will more practice and review help sort this out? Ive already raised my LG score from 18 to 21 and would like to get it up to 23-25. Is it normal to still get some wrong when youre overall considered competent?

  4. Joshua Craven on

    Thanks James! Feel free to proofread the rest of the article if you’d like 🙂 There are just two of us working on the site in the evening after getting home from our full-time jobs, so typos do tend to pop up. We honestly love when our readers point out errors so that we can fix them!

  5. Joshua Craven on

    Thanks! Please continue to let us know where we can improve. We’re dedicated to making it the most helpful and trusted resource on the web for LSAT Prep and Law School Admissions advice, and your feedback helps push us in the right direction toward that goal.

  6. Hello,

    Been studying untimed LR questions with my Powerscore LR bible for about a month and I continue to miss 5 on average per section. While it’s usually the 2-3 of the same question types, the occasional anomoly is in there. Been brushing ip on conditional reasoning and looking at answer explanations 3-4 at a time but it seems like an impossible boundary to break.

  7. Hi! Thank you for this post! I’m certainly feeling stuck on the Logical Reasoning section (I seem to have hit a plateau) and not really sure how to proceed from here. I’ve been through the Logical Reasoning Bible as well as a few other books, but I’m having trouble really getting my scores up. On the LR section, I never have a time issue – even when I force myself to go slowly I still end up with 2-5 min leftover, yet I’m still missing around 5-6 per section every time. Any advice?

  8. Hi There,
    Do you guys have any good advice for Must be True and Weaken Questions. These two types seems to be the once I just cannot get. Any help would be much appreciated.

  9. Hi guys,

    I am starting my final month of prep. I have had two months of (what perhaps could have been more intensive) studying, averaging around 3 hours a day. I am making studying my job now, but for the most part encounter stagnant scores in Logical Reasoning. I know a lot of it has to do with focus, and that I truly do fall for the traps or see a different pattern that is not the right one to acknowledge. What would you recommend as a strategy in the final month of prep, in order to thoroughly trouble shoot these issues while continuing to take full tests and try to reach high marks? I am setting a high target score but have concerns. I read most of your articles, they have been really helpful.

    Thanks for any forthcoming advice,

  10. Hi,

    I think you brushed up on this in the article, but Im sort of mystified with my situation. My LR score has been going down from -3 to now -6. Based on your article, it probably means because i’m slowing down in an attempt to apply what i’m learning? If that’s true, then should I focus on untimed sections? Im not sure what to do next because to me it seems like the more I study and drill LR, the worse I get.

    Any advice would be soooo greatly appreciated. Thank you!

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